A study of 2nd-calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gulls in June

A selection of second-calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus, photographed during the sand suppletion activities at the beach of Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, June 2013.

Individuals were scored on replaced primaries, secondaries, wing coverts and tail feathers. A large variation can be observed.

larus fuscus graellsii types

Characteristics of this type include:

  • Wing coverts usually completely 1st generation with only a small number of 2nd generation feathers
  • Tail feathers 1st generation (at the most with an outer 2nd-generation feather)
  • Body and head boldly patterned
  • Bill mostly black

Bird #1

Almost all median coverts have been dropped, P1 and P2 are new, P3 and P4 are missing and/or growing, P5 – P10 1st generation. All secondaries 1st generation, tail 1st generation. Primary moult score 12 (5511000000).

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 14 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 14 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 14 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 14 June 2013.

Bird #2

Most median coverts have been dropped, P1 and P2 are half grown, P3 and P4 are missing, P5 – P10 1st generation. Primary moult score 8 (3311000000). All secondaries 1st generation, tail 1st generation.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 14 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 14 June 2013.

Bird #3

All wing coverts present and 1st generation, P1 and P2 have been dropped, P3 – P10 1st generation.
Primary moult score 8 (3311000000). All secondaries 1st generation, tail 1st generation.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 14 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 14 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 14 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 14 June 2013.

Bird #4

All wing coverts 1st generation, most median coverts have been dropped, all secondaries 1st generation, all tail feathers 1st generation. P1 – P3 missing and/or growing, P4 – P10 1st generation. Primary moult score 3 (1110000000). White body and upper tail coverts.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 15 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 15 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 15 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 15 June 2013.

Bird #5

Almost all median wing coverts 2nd generation, all other wing coverts 1st generation, all secondaries 1st generation, all tail feathers 1st generation. P1 and P2 fully grown, P3 almost fully grown, P4 and P5 missing and/or growing. Primary moult score 16 (5541100000). Much barring on body and head.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

Bird #6

Some median wing coverts 2nd generation while some of them have been dropped, all secondaries 1st generation, all tail feathers 1st generation. P1 and P2 almost fully grown, P3 – P5 missing and/or growing. Primary moult score 11 (4411100000). Much barring on the body, contrasting with the white head.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

Bird #7

All median coverts 2nd generation, most lesser coverts 2nd generation,  greater coverts second generation or dropped, all secondaries 1st generation except S1 which is new and half grown. P1 – P5 fully grown, P6 almost fully grown, P7 missing and/or growing. Primary moult score 29 (5555541000). Much barring on the body and head.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

larus fuscus intermedius types

Characteristics of this type include:

  • Extensive moult (performed on the wintering grounds), including most/all wing-coverts and tertials
  • Some/all tail feathers 2nd generation
  • Tail band black instead of brown (as for graellsii)
  • Body and head less boldly patterned than graellsii
  • Bill lighter colored

Black JM4E

Individual ringed in Stavanger, Norway in September 2012 as a first-calendar year.

All greater coverts second generation, all median coverts second generation or dropped, some lesser coverts second generation, all secondaries first generation, P1 and P2 fully grown, P3 half grown, P4– P5 missing and/or growing, P6 – P10 first generation. Primary moult score: 16 (5511130000)

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull with Norwegian ring Black JM4E, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull with Norwegian ring Black JM4E, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 23 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull with Norwegian ring Black JM4E, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull with Norwegian ring Black JM4E, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

Bird #8

All wing coverts replaced, all secondaries replaced except S1 and S2, all tail feathers replaced. P1 and P2 are fully grown, P3 is missing and/or growing, P4 – P10 1st generation. Primary moult score 11 (5510000000).

Second-calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull. Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 16 June 2013.

Second-calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull. Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 16 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 14 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 14 June 2013.

Bird #9

Inner wing coverts replaced, all secondaries 1st generation, all tail feathers replaced. P1 almost fully grown, P2 half grown, P3 – P10 1st generation. Primary moult score 7 (4300000000).

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 15 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 15 June 2013.

Bird #10

More than half of the median coverts 2nd generation, a few lesser coverts 2nd generation,  inner greater coverts second generation, all secondaries 1st generation, all tail feathers second generation. P1 and P2 missing and/or growing, P3 – P10 1st generation. Primary moult score 2 (1100000000). Body and head mostly white.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

2nd-Calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gull, Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 June 2013.

larus fuscus fuscus types (Baltic Gull)

Characteristics of this type include:

  • 2nd generation coverts, secondaries, primaries and tail feathers (in other words: no 1st generation feathers)
  • Yellow-tinged bill and legs

Bird #11

Bird #1. 2nd-calendar year Baltic Gull. Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 Jun 2013.

Bird #1. 2nd-calendar year Baltic Gull. Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 Jun 2013.

Bird #1 showing dark central greater coverts in the right wing. 2nd-calendar year Baltic Gull. Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 Jun 2013.

Bird #1 showing dark central greater coverts in the right wing. 2nd-calendar year Baltic Gull. Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 Jun 2013.

Bird #12

Bird #2. 2nd-calendar year Baltic Gull. Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 Jun 2013.

Bird #2. 2nd-calendar year Baltic Gull. Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 Jun 2013.

View on the upper tail coverts of Bird #2. 2nd-calendar year Baltic Gull. Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 Jun 2013.

View on the upper tail coverts of Bird #2. 2nd-calendar year Baltic Gull. Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 22 Jun 2013.

See also 2 Baltic Gulls instead of 1 at Noordwijk

References

Second-calendar year Lesser Black-backed Gulls in June – Gull Research.org

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